1. In Harvey Turnbull, The Guitar: From the Renaissance to the Present Day, 1991, The Bold Strummer, Connecticut, p. 116. [ return to text ]
2. Brian Jeffery (Ed), Fernando Sor: Volumes 6: Guitar Solos-Opus Numbers 44-52, n.d., Tecla Editions, n.p. [ return to text ]
3. Turnbull, 1991, p. 116.[ return to text ]
4. Michael Decker, "The Style Characteristics and Idiomatic Techniques of Estudios Sencillos by Leo Brouwer", Classical Guitar, February 1987, p. 23. [ return to text ]
5. Brouwer's studies collectively, are entitled Estudios Sencillos. They are similarly labelled Etudes Simples, which comprises four series with each series containing five studies each. General sources present 1961-62 as their inception dates. Paul Century however, lists Series I (i.e. Studies I-V) as being composed in 1958 and Series II (Studies VI-X) in 1962. (See Century 1985, p. 51). [ return to text ]
6. Clive Kronenberg, Cuban Artist Leo Brouwer and His Solo Guitar Works: Pieza sin titulo to Elogio de la Danza. A Contextual-Analytical Study, Unpublished Masters Thesis, University of Cape Town, 2000, p. 189.[ return to text ]
7. Michael Decker, 1987, p. 21. [ return to text ]
8. Michael Dausend, (trans. Rose Augustine), "Structure is a Fundamental Element of my Work", Guitar Review, Summer 1990, p. 11.[ return to text ]
9. A. Dumond and F. Denis, (trans. Michael Tuffin), "Entretiens avec Leo Brouwer", Les Cahiers de la Guitare, 4e Trimestre 1988, p. 8. (Michael Tuffin is a Senior Lecturer at the South African College of Music at the University of Cape Town)[ return to text ]
10. Ibid.[ return to text ]
11. Constance McKenna, "An Interview with Leo Brouwer", Guitar Review, No. 75, Fall 1988, p. 10.[ return to text ]
12. Corresponding techniques include open strings acting as pedal points or used in peculiar higher-register chordal structures, fixed left-hand positions which shift along the fingerboard, numerous slurring figurations, left-hand finger glides on single and more strings, left-hand pivot fingerings, and intrinsic and fixed right-hand finger patterns.[ return to text ]
13. Emilio Pujol, El Dilema Del Sonido, (trans. D. Gow and E. Giordan), 1960, Buenos Aires, Ricordi Americana, p. 48. [ return to text ]
14. Dionisio Aguado, (Brian Jeffery Ed.), Nuevo Metodo para Guitarra, 1843/1981, London, Tecla Editions, pp. ix-xvi.[ return to text ]
15. Dausend, 1990, p. 10.[ return to text ]
16. This paragraph has as its source Carlos Molina, "The Guitar in Cuba", Guitar Review, No. 72, Winter 1988, p. 4.[ return to text ]
17. Gareth Walters, "Leo Brouwer", Classical Guitar, September 1984, pp. 18-19. Here already, Brouwer's right hand was causing him some trouble and he was forced to make last minute changes to his right-hand fingerings - rather than cancel this performance.[ return to text ]
18. Dumond and Denis, p.8.[ return to text ]
19. Kronenberg, 2000, p. 189.[ return to text ]
20. Kevin Vigil, Classical Guitar, February 1987, p. 23. [ return to text ]
21. GSP Publications/Reference "Leo Brouwer", 2000, Catalog Web Site[ return to text ]
22. Vigil, 1987, p. 23[ return to text ]
1. Els Breukers, "Leo Brouwer in Holland", Guitar, April 1977, pp. 7-8.
2. Joseph Breznikar, Reviews: "Etudes Simples Pour Guitare: 3rd and 4th Series, Guitar Review, Fall 1984, pp. 36-37.
3. Paul Century, Idiom and Intellect: Stylistic Synthesis in the Solo Guitar Music of Leo Brouwer, Unpublished Master's Thesis, 1985, University of California at Santa Barbara.
4. Paul Century, "Leo Brouwer: A Portrait of the Artist in Socialist Cuba", American Music Review, Vol. VIII Fall-Winter 1987, pp. 151-171.
5. Colin Cooper, "Chanson de Geste: Leo Brouwer and the New Romanticism", Classical Guitar, June 1985, pp. 13-16.
6. Colin Cooper, "Binary Rhythm: Leo Brouwer in Rome", Classical Guitar, December 1996, pp. 11-14.
7. Paul Cox, Classic Guitar Technique and its Evolution as Reflected in the Method Books CA 1770-1850, PhD Dissertation, 1978, Indiana University.
8. Clive Kronenberg, The Contribution of Leo Brouwer to 20th Century Guitar Composition, Unpublished Research Essay, BMus. Hons, 1997, University of Cape Town.
9. Clive Kronenberg, "Meeting Cuban Composer Leo Brouwer", Interview with Brouwer at the 1998 Nürtingen Guitar Festival.
10. Constance McKenna, "The International Competition and Festival of the Guitar in Havana", Guitar Review, No. 74 Summer 1988, pp. 1-6.
11. Carlos Molina, "Guitarists of Cuba", Guitar Review, No. 74 Summer 1988, pp. 12-19.
12. Charles Ramirez, "Classical Repertoire - Intermediate" in The Guitar: A Guide for Students and Teachers, M. Stimpson Ed., Oxford University, 1988.
13. David Russell, "Classic Technique" in The Guitar: A Guide for Students and Teachers, M. Stimpson Ed., Oxford University, 1988.
14. Kevin Vigil, "Minimizing Left-Hand Tension", Soundboard, Fall/Winter 1992, pp. 33-38 & "Developing Speed with Music", Soundboard, Summer 1994, pp. 25-26.